Bridge construction is an expensive project, it is essential that all necessary tests may be conducted prior to the actual construction. These tests and investigations can reveal the bridge behavior under different dynamic loads. Computer aided design and testing are powerful tools that must be used to assist in the bridge design. Bridge design has benefited considerably due to the growth of computer programs.
The type of bridge foundation has to be selected, such as the well foundation, pile foundation, and the opened foundation. The soil characteristics will determine the load bearing capacity, and other important parameters. The superstructure is basically designed in accordance with the technical requirements, aesthetic reasons, and the construction methodology. Excavation required for the foundations may need to be executed to sizeable depths, involving hard ground, before the solid rocks are reached. Engineering feats will be involved to avoid water, and prevent collapse of the diggings. Tunnels specifically may be subjected to sudden failures.